Products menu Menu

News

2018

February

Network Bridge – Stereophile December 2017
23rd February 2018

By Jason Victor Serinus

Download
End to End Excellence: The People Behind The Product
16th February 2018

Ray Wing, dCS Quality Manager

“Around one hundred and fifty years ago, I went to Hitchin Grammar School for Boys”, jokes Ray Wing. “I’m a local to this area, born in Royston. I’ve stayed in this area all my life, even with work. I couldn’t leave school soon enough and didn’t go to university. I probably should have done, but I wanted to be a musician as soon as I was old enough to pick up a musical instrument. I travelled around the country in a band for a couple of years, and then finally got a proper job.”

Ray is a dCS stalwart; he’s been at the company longer than most, and has seen it change dramatically over the years. Yet all throughout his life he has had an abiding interest in music, hi-fi and engineering. “I became a fully qualified vibration engineer. My first job had been shaking things until they self-destruct, and so it was good training for working at Neve Electronics, just down the road! They do audio mixers for high end studios and recording studios. I worked for everyone from the BBC to The Kinks, back in the day, designing mixing desks for them.”

It was a great job, but after a decade Ray moved on and ended up working for PA Technology. “They are one of the big consulting groups and they have all the different engineering disciplines in the same building. There are chemists in there, food technologists, mechanical engineers, electronic engineers, software engineers. I ran the electronics design office there for ten years. You could be working on a food mixer one day and a machine for making Mars Bars the next! It was one of those really interesting jobs in which I gained loads of experience. I worked on one of the first ever mobile phones; the team were the best guys in England working on radio technology…”

Ray’s next step was into mainstream hi-fi with Quad/Wharfedale. “I was head of development there for four years, with a team of thirty engineers. When they moved to China, I moved to dCS! All this time, I had been continuing my attempts to become a musician. In a way I succeeded because I am half-decent. I come from a musical family, especially my father who was a drummer in the Army and travelled all over the world. Early on I travelled around Britain supporting big acts like The Searchers, The Kinks and Status Quo – we supported them when they were at Number One in 1967. We were a three – or sometimes four – piece heavy rock band, loud and nasty. We were influenced by the rougher edge of rock, like The Stones and Led Zeppelin…”

Like his idols, Ray still plays today. “We are all of the age now where we’re in the midst of retiring or winding down, and our guitar player is seventy in February so we’re planning a gig. He wants to have a big party and we’re going to play at it. I’ve still got the enthusiasm to turn out on a cold night and actually play. We’ll be doing more middle of the road stuff, like The Eagles. We have three singers so there are a lot of vocal harmony type numbers we do, but I still sometimes play in a nasty rock band.”

Mostly Ray plays bass, but can play pretty much anything if pushed. “I’m fairly presentable on most instruments but love playing bass because you’re the powerhouse of the band, along with the drummer. I like that sort of responsibility. We make the band happen, and the singer and lead guitarist are basically posers! To be honest I love guitars, and have a large collection now – that’s what I spend the money that we make from gigging on. I buy a guitar every so often, and I have now have a nice collection of various Gibsons and Fenders and other things, about twenty in all…”

“My favourite guitar is the one I haven’t got! I want a red Gibson 335 before I finally hang up the boots. To get a nice one it’s about £2,500 to £3,000. This was the thing to play back in the sixties and seventies, most people have had one. Clapton always used to play a 335 and now he plays a Stratocaster. You either play a Gibson Les Paul, a Fender Strat, a Fender Telecaster or a Gibson 335. They are the four guitars which people will have one or all of. The 335 is a semi acoustic, rather than a solid guitar. Originally it was designed more to be a Jazz guitar, which it is very good at, and Blues. The difference between a Gibson and a Fender is that Fenders have single coil pickups which give a piercing treble, while Gibsons have humbuckers which have a warmer and more growly sound.”

“I have a really nice Telecaster, a really old one that goes back to the eighties. Both the sound and feel are special. You can go along to a shop and go along a whole rack of guitars hanging on the wall, and one of them will feel better than all the rest. It is a personal thing really. I think any instrument is a bit like that, when you pick it up and it feels right somehow. Pick another one up and it is not. You know when you’ve got the right one. Some old guitars are just right, others terrible. I think it’s the variability of manufacturing back then. Modern manufacturing has taken out a lot of the wrinkles, and they’re more consistent. Some materials have changed though; they are not allowed to use some of those woods anymore. Gibson used to use mahogany from Brazil, but basically they’re still the same as the nineteen fifties…”

Although Ray likes everything from the Bee Gees to Billy Joel – and ELO’s Mr Blue Sky is a particular favourite too – it is Led Zep that sends shivers down his spine. “That is my era. That is when I grew up and the music I played and the sort of bands I saw as I was touring around. It is a lot of memories, really. I have had a huge amount of fun, in music and my professional life. Music has kept me sane for most of my life really – well, fairly…”

 

Talk is Cheap
14th February 2018

People’s understanding of technology comes retrospectively, with hindsight. For example, do you remember how fresh Digital Versatile Disc (DVD) felt, twenty or so years ago? Able to store several times the amount of data of conventional Compact Discs, early adopters of consumer technology were awe-struck. Now though, we donate DVDs to charity shops because they’re taking up too much storage space in our attics – and stream our movies and music direct, or at the very least experience them on old-fashioned Blu-Ray…

It’s sobering to think how DVD has gone from hero to zero in the past decade or so. Once the future not just of vision but also of sound, so many respectable industry watchers predicted that two-channel systems would be replaced with multichannel surround sound within just a few years. Yet by the end of the last decade the little silver disc was losing its lustre, as the shine wore off its high tech appeal. History now teaches us that it largely failed to impact the hi-fi world, which if anything has gone back to purist stereo systems, especially at the high end.

Because we are always right in the middle of technological change, it’s often hard to see the wood for the trees. Two decades ago DVD was all the range, whereas ten years ago music downloads were the thing that would transform our world. Now, it is streaming that we’re preoccupied with, but could it be that this too is something of a sideshow, and that the real driving force behind the next generation of video and music playback will be artificial intelligence via smart control?

The big technology players seem to think so, which is why many are now devoting considerable resources to new types of voice and screen-activated consumer tech. Amazon’s Alexa is now migrating from smart speakers to touchscreens, and doing to smartphones what they did to personal computers ten years ago. iPhone and Android have revolutionised information technology, but still have their limitations. It feels like you can’t make a phone call on smartphones without being assailed by social media apps trying to grab your attention. Nowadays there’s increasing evidence that many want to break free from such distractions; according to ComScore in the USA, more people are now deliberately not downloading apps than are downloading them.

We are seeing an increasing focus on smart, internet-connected devices that make direct communication with people via brief, purposeful interactions. An Amazon spokesman recently said that the company is, “trying to get people away from all the personal electronics and create more of a communal experience, so you’re not just looking down into your individual phones, and instead are actually collaborating with family members.” Amazon’s Echo speaker has proved a smash hit, and now Apple is muscling in on the action with the launch of its new Siri-based HomePod smart speaker, which some say will take music streaming to a whole new level.

Interestingly, while Amazon’s Echo is a kind of home assistant that happens to play music, Apple has chosen to position HomePod as a music device that can help out around the house. Its marketing in the US has focused on music, showing how a massive virtual library of tunes is just one voice command away. It’s a lot more expensive than Amazon’s Echo, but Apple has made an earnest attempt to make it sound good – for an audio product of its type, of course. The interesting thing is that Apple obviously thinks there’s a large, quality-aware, music loving market out there for it.

As is invariably the case for Apple products, it’s very easy to set up and soon gives you simple and direct access to Apple Music. Meanwhile Amazon is trying to make things even easier with Echo Show, which sports a small touchscreen in addition to its voice control via Alexa. The hope is that users will be able to accomplish many of the things they use a smartphone for right now (weather reports, checking the stockmarket, looking up travel information, etc.), without needing to reach for it.

Where does this leave us here in the hi-fi world? Well it’s too soon to say, but it is clear that innovators are now looking at a new generation of smart control devices designed to take the strain off your smartphone, and which offer a newer, fresher and more intuitive control interface. The obvious question is, when is all this going to reach specialist audio? Smartphone apps are now becoming common but we might soon begin to see other, more intuitive ways of interacting with our sound systems. In truth, it’s early days yet and not even the leading tech giants have figured out a roadmap – yet it’s something that’s going to become increasingly important to us all. As DVD showed us, what a difference a decade makes!

January

End to End Excellence: The People Behind The Product, Colin Barker, dCS Production Manager
End to End Excellence: The People Behind The Product, Colin Barker, dCS Production Manager
19th January 2018

Ever wondered what type of people it takes to create a world-class product like dCS? In this new series we will be introducing our exceedingly talented team.

Our first introduction will definitely not disappoint if you are a dCS and Star Wars fan!

There aren’t many people in the hi-fi industry who started their careers as a trawler fisherman, but Colin Barker is one. “Believe or not, it’s true”, he says. “I left school from Kings Lynn in Norfolk, and that was the local trade. Although it wasn’t my dream job; as I child I was always passionate about model making. I always dreamed about designing creatures, working in the movies. Unfortunately in the nineteen eighties, career advice wasn’t very good so I followed some friends into fishing and chose that path. I did it for a few years but it collapsed, so I decided to dip my toes in electronics…”

Colin found himself doing all sorts of work in this field, and then got a call from an agent he was working for. A company called dCS was looking for someone. “I loved it. The company was great, the people were fantastic, the products were a pinnacle even then. It was like building Ferraris and Rolls Royces – really prestigious stuff! Being diligent and organised I have slowly made my way up from being effectively an assembler to now being Production Manager. It has been a case of sticking to the top and trying to be the best I can be, and being recognised by the company and being promoted as I have gone along.”

“Nowadays,” he continues, “my role entails keeping products flowing through the factory, keeping the team motivated and making sure we are getting what we should be getting out of the door. I’m also responsible for much of the inbound quality so am directly responsible for a lot of the suppliers – especially, currently, the special finishes, the nickels and golds that we are putting on Vivaldi One. I get to scrutinise a lot of these finishes out in the field with the suppliers and also when they arrive back at the factory. If they fail to meet our standard then they get rejected out and we put them through a rework loop. The results have to be one hundred percent perfect so it’s pretty hard work! Quality is absolutely key as far as we are concerned. We would never willingly or knowingly let something substandard leave the factory. That is unforgivable as far as we are concerned.”

Colin leads something of a double life, however. As well as being known for the quality of his work during office hours, he’s famous for the things he does out of hours too. “I love miniaturisation. I love small things. I have always enjoyed making my own – for want of a better word – toys. It gives me something to pour my creativity into. We all love our job, but sometimes it can be hard work and there is a lot of pressure there. So when I get home I switch on some music and depressurise, and then I feel the need to make something! I have made all sorts but a few years ago I decided to build an actual Star Wars R2D2 scale model from scratch. It took me about nine months to build the first one, and it got a great reception. I used to take it to conventions, hospitals, and so on for charity use.”

Colin took his R2D2 to a large Star Wars convention run by Lucasfilm, designed to promote the film franchise. “In a rather tongue-in-cheek way, our builders’ club approached a company representative, none other than Kathleen Kennedy, and offered to build some new R2s for the next Star Wars movie. To our total surprise we ended up doing this for The Force Awakens. In Spring 2015 I found myself signing a non-disclosure agreement, and they invited me to Pinewood Studios. I took my droids down and they absolutely loved them!”

Colin says it was very emotional because he met people there who – as a child – he had looked up to. “They were telling me how great they thought my builds were, and I was blown away. I was so humbled by that.” He spent the next couple of months doing various scenes and shots for the forthcoming film. “It was a completion of the full circle of my dream”, he says. “I dreamt as a boy, of wanting to work in creature effects and there I was. I spent a little bit of time working in the creature effects department of Star Wars, The Force Awakens!”

“Fast forward twelve months and I got another call to go back, and this time it was to go and work on Rogue One. Again, I was very lucky that I had made a good impression and subsequently I keep getting calls now – but unfortunately work is busy and my priority is always dCS. That is where I am really needed. But when it is calmer and I think I can sneak away for a few days then, well you never know! Maybe in the future I’ll go and help another movie, that would be great…”

So anyone who owns a dCS product will have had its final quality control and checking done by the same person who builds robots for Star Wars? “Yes, that’s right. I love building things and have always loved these films. I wouldn’t call myself a ‘superfan’ but I am a huge fan of modelling and electronics and like to push my limits. I love asking myself, from literally where do I start building one of these things? I go and do some research, and then get on the path never knowing if I’m going to have the skills to pull it off. You end up learning entirely new skill sets as you go along. I’ve learned about plastics, painting techniques and how to ‘age’ things to make them look like they’re really old and dirty – not something I will ever need at dCS, I hope!”

Colin does take his androids into the office every now and again. “I have actually got three of these things at home now. I did take one into work when we had the launch for Vivaldi One. Every now and again I bring things in to show the guys what I am up to, and it just so happened that a load of international distributors had turned up on one such day. They were absolutely blown away that a real, actual R2D2 was rolling around the factory before their very eyes!”

Going for Gold – Four Part series
18th January 2018

 

Going for Gold – Part 1

In the first of a four-part feature on the gold-plated dCS Vivaldi One, we meet FH Lambert, specialist electroplater…

“We have done a few components for other hi-fi companies, but out of all of them this is surely the most demanding – probably the most demanding that we have ever done.” So says Jamie Lambert, managing director of FH Lambert Ltd., one of the UK’s most esteemed metal plating specialists. He’s referring of course to the striking gold finish option on the new dCS Vivaldi One – the limited edition flagship one-box dCS digital disc player, streamer and DAC. Designed to celebrate the company’s illustrious thirty year history – it had to be extra special, and gold is just that. “It’s because of the large surface area that we have to plate – it’s extremely difficult to ensure we get it to a very high standard…”

Jamie recounts the first contact with dCS: “To be honest with you, I can’t even remember how they got our name, how they first found out about us. But they came over and inspected our facilities; a few guys from dCS including designer Ray Wing. And so we went through the fundamentals of how we do parts – how we jig, how we measure, surface areas, everything – and I think it ticked all the boxes on their part. It was almost like we were reassuring them that we approach this accurately. I kept saying that it’s all very well but at the end of the day I can sit here and sell the company and do whatever, but the proof is in the pudding. So we did the first one, and they couldn’t believe how good it came out. They thought that they were going to have problems with the plating, but they didn’t.”

FH Lambert is a family-run business, second generation now, based in Watford. “Basically, the company started in 1963, primarily to design and manufacture watches and jewellery”, explains Jamie. “My father Frank Henry Lambert’s initials gave the company its name. Then, around 1986 the company took the decision to diversify solely into the electroplating market. The reason for that was the market dropped for watch and jewellery manufacturing in the UK and Europe because the Far East became very cheap to manufacture things, especially China. Obviously everything got moved over there, but we still kept the electroplating side of the business. We only had very, very small plating tanks to plate watches. That’s how it started, but then we ventured into the aerospace sector…”

This was a turning point for the company. “We began to get calls from very high end clients, wanting us to start plating private aircraft. I took over from my father fifteen years ago; at that time we had around six people, but we’ve now grown to thirty-one. Demand for decorative precious metal plating has soared, and we now do metal plating, finishing and surface coating. Metal plating obviously consists of dCS-style gold, along with silver plating, chrome plating, nickel plating, copper plating. Metal finishing includes polishing to get to a mirror finish, and then we offer surface coating on top of our metal plating where we clearcoat as well, in different varieties of lacquer. It is mainly small-to-medium volume, we don’t do high levels of production because we have exclusive clients such as dCS.”
Jamie cannot mention many of his other clients due to non-disclosure agreements, but suffice to say it is mainly for airlines, and tends to be the super first-class suites of the world’s top airlines, and also for royal families. “We also do quite a bit with the super-yacht marine industry as well. It is quality over quantity,” he says. “That’s it in a nutshell. A lot of people can do plating, but we work for a very, very demanding clientele – and dCS is a perfect example!”

 

 

Vivaldi One gold

 

Going for Gold – Part 2

In the second of a four-part feature on the gold-plated dCS Vivaldi One, we look at how it receives its immaculate finish…

FH Lambert is the specialist electroplating company that does the sublime gold finish on the limited edition Vivaldi One. dCS chose them for the quality of the company’s work, which is done in low volumes and to aerospace standards. Managing Director Jamie Lambert explains that, “we are basically an aerospace company, what you would call an AS1900 company. That itself is a quality management system or framework built around the aerospace sector. In terms of our aesthetic, visual inspections, it is set at every process, every process step. It’s not a case of completing the work and then finding there’s an issue with it – the way we do it, every step of the way there is an intermediate inspection that it has to pass.”

Like cooking, it’s all in the preparation, says Jamie. “You have got to make sure that is all right and that isn’t easy, and it is a very skilled job. It’s something that we do and we train people here to do. You’ve got to have Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) – and fortunately many people who work here do! It’s about understanding that quality makes our business. We are a tier two business; there are manufacturers like dCS and wider supply chains that sit above us. You could say, as a plating plant, ours is one of the cleanest you’d ever come across. We want to set a professional image about ourselves because we do get audited regularly by our customers. We get this all the time…”

When a dCS Vivaldi One part arrives at FH Lambert, it comes in a specially designed box which is padded to protect the component. “Then, they’re all unwrapped and accounted for”, says Jamie. “We book them all in on our system and everything is fully traceable. The part is not just received and plated, we have to build it as specified. The steps and sequence are all on the actual job card. We engrave a unique identification number on to the part, the reason for this being traceability. This is a huge thing in aerospace. Every step of the way we can always find where it is on the shop floor. Even if it goes back to the customer and, let’s say something happens later on, we can ask the customer to read back the identification number on the part (obviously we engrave it in an inconspicuous area which is not seen by the customer) and can pull out from our system when it was done, who it was done by, where did it go in the process. Effectively this means we can rebuild this part at a later date, in the exact same way as we did before.”

After this, the part is linished. “This basically when it is sanded, and the reason for this is to remove any machine tramlines or marks. Then it is polished on a spindle mop to a very high mirror finish. Once it passes inspection it is now jigged, then you clean the part and go through various etchers and cleaners. Then it is nickel plated – the nickel having been laid down on the surface it is then copper plated. The reason for this is copper is a very soft metal which you can polish very easily. Then it’s nickelled again and finally gold plated. Obviously, between these layers there is an inspection. Once it is gold plated it’s got to go through a final inspection and then it is wrapped in a special material that we use here which prevents scratching. Then they are inserted back into their boxes and returned to the customer – in this case dCS. So the Vivaldi One isn’t just dipped in gold, if you know what I mean!”

 


Going for Gold – Part 3

In the third of a four-part feature on the gold-plated dCS Vivaldi One, we look how a perfect finish is obtained.

 

There is more to getting an immaculate gold finish that just dipping something in gold, says Jamie Lambert, managing director of FH Lambert Ltd. – one of the UK’s most esteemed metal plating specialists. “What ultimately counts is the nickel”, he explains. “Take for example, a beautifully chrome plated car bumper. Most people think that lovely finish that you get is produced by the chrome, but it isn’t. What gives you that mirror-like, highly reflective finish is actually the nickel. Nickel is the key element in most decorative finishing. Chrome is simply put on top of the nickel to seal it, because nickel tarnishes over time, it goes yellow. Think of an American quarter, the coin. Over time they start to yellow off. So, chrome is applied on top to keep it from tarnishing. In the case of the gold-plated parts for the dCS Vivaldi One, we are putting gold on instead, to get a beautiful colour.”

Each dCS part is polished, etched, cleaned and then nickel plated. Then it gets copper plating before the final nickel layer for a deep mirror shine, and then gold. The reason for the copper before this, says Jamie, is to seal the aluminium. The gold at the end seals the nickel, protecting it with the atmosphere. “Gold is perfect for this,” he adds, “because it’s one of the most unreactive elements around. It really is very, very good. It isn’t just used for decorative applications – because it’s a very good conductor of electricity, and a good heat reflector as well. NASA use it on a lot of their satellites for insulation and various spacecraft because it reflects heat very well, it reflects light very well. It is a very good element in so many ways. These characteristics are why it has such allure for so many people, I think…”

Silver tarnishes with the sulphur in the atmosphere, of course, as does copper. Nickel doesn’t tarnish as much but does “yellow off”. Chrome and gold are the best for longevity. “There is a kind of natural selection in materials,” he says. “Automotive loves chrome and jewellery sees gold as one of the great materials – surely because it is beauty and longevity, which is a rare combination.”

The lucky owner of a gold-plated dCS Vivaldi One will not need to clean his or her machine. Gold, done to the standard that FH Lambert delivers, only needs very light dusting – not polishing. “Ultimately, the only problem with gold is that it scratches quite easily, so handling is paramount. dCS includes soft cotton gloves with each piece, so it should be installed wearing these. After that, it only needs the occasional wipe with a microfibre suede cloth to lightly dust the surface down. Microfibre suede is better than the standard non-suede variety because there is no pattern in the manufacturing process. Sometimes, under pressure, these patterns can scratch any material – it doesn’t have to be gold. Suede however, because it doesn’t have a pattern to it, is very silky and practically slides over the surface. Every type of cleaning cloth abrades ever so slightly, but suede micro fibre abrades in a random way and doesn’t leave swirls or marks like conventional cloths.”

Finally, says Jamie, “one of the most critical things is that you store the cleaning cloth away in its container – because if you put it down on any type of surface it can pick up what in aerospace jargon we call “FODS”, fine object debris. To you and me this is called “dirt”. Once that is impregnated or locked onto the cloth, when you then come to wipe the part, you are then pushing that debris against the surface. So, handle with care!

 

 

 

Going for Gold – Part 4

In the last of our four-part feature on the gold-plated dCS Vivaldi One, we look at aftercare and quality.

Those fortunate enough to invest in a gold-plated, thirtieth anniversary Vivaldi One have the ultimate dCS product in the most unique and bespoke finish. It does need just a little more care and maintenance than the standard version, says Jamie Lambert, managing director of FH Lambert Ltd. Gold is a beautiful finish, and as a metal is ultra stable so doesn’t tarnish with the atmosphere. However, because it is relatively soft one does need to take care handling it. As we have heard, Jamie recommends moving the product wearing soft cotton gloves, and dusting it infrequently with a suede microfibre cloth. This done, no more attention is needed – but if the worst happens and the machine gets damaged, there is no need to panic…

“If the owner of the Vivaldi One damages a panel, then dCS will be able to order a like-for-like replacement from us, done in exactly the same shade of gold in exactly the same way”, says Jamie. “When I say exactly, I mean exactly. Every process is logged and repeatable. For example, we’ve riveted a plate one year and riveted another one a year later, and the colour is guaranteed and the process guaranteed. We can do this because it’s built into our system – we guarantee the colour and consistency because we use photo spectrometry here. We have machines which measure the lightness and darkness and the colour. This is serious stuff – even many of our suppliers from whom we source the solutions and the metals cannot believe that we take such trouble.”

Jamie says he feels the same way about dCS. “Fantastic! They were kind enough to show me around their facility. What blew me away was just their culture, the passion that they all had, their staff had. It is very similar to my staff I have here. There’s great passion, positivity and drive – they all really believe in what they are doing, like it is part of them. What really did it for me was right at the end, they took me in to their demonstration room. They had asked me to bring some music, and we plugged it in and I just sat there on the sofa whilst they played it, and it is phenomenal. I really enjoy my music – I play piano and I love it.”

“The great thing about our involvement with dCS is that everyday we do products that I or my staff never get to appreciate”, he adds. “When they’re all put together, we never get to appreciate them in the field, so to speak. Yet here we’ve been able to see the end product complete, as a working entity – and the gold Vivaldi One is a thing of beauty. It is nice to see that, and it is very much appreciated. What I am going to be doing soon, when I’ve got some time, is to bring some of my staff who work on the parts up to dCS, so they can get a sense of where their work is ending up. It will be great fun for us all and makes everyone feel special – and rightly so.”

Jamie says the desire for special finishes is growing ever stronger. “These days, because we live in such a commercial society where everything is mass produced, I think people like these special one-off type objects. Also, the story behind it, of how it gets to where it is, is actually really important. In our business with the ultra-luxury end of commercial aviation, that’s what people love.” To that, he can add another object of beauty – surely the finest single-box digital music source yet made – the limited edition dCS Vivaldi One.

 

Debussy Plus USB DAC Software Update V2.30
16th January 2018

dCS is pleased to announce the release of software version 2.30 for the Debussy Plus USB DAC.

 The update adds DXD and DSD/128 capability to the USB and Dual AES interfaces, so that files recorded at these rates can be played directly.

The Dual AES interface will also accept dCS-encrypted DSD/64 data from dCS CD/SACD Transports, so the Debussy is now compatible with the Vivaldi Transport, as well as the final versions (v1.11) of the Scarlatti & Paganini Transports when set to “Vivaldi Mode”.    

 The update file with installation instructions may be downloaded at no charge from https://www.dcsltd.co.uk/products/debussy-dac/support and loaded from a computer via the DAC’s USB interface. As many Debussy owners have “gone disc-less”, v2.30 update discs have not been mass-produced this time. Discs can be supplied on request and will incur a service charge.

 Debussy has been in production since 2010, and was upgraded with a USB Class 2 interface in 2011. If you have the original “DDC” version (software v1.00 or 1.01), upgrades to Debussy Plus can still be arranged through your local distributor.

 We hope you enjoy the new features!

 The dCS Team

Magic Numbers
10th January 2018

In 2017, the United Kingdom’s music business had its best year for a very long time. 1998 was the last occasion that sales rose as fast, according to the latest research published by the British Phonographic Institute (BPI). Back then, when the charts were full of Britpop bands like The Verve and Massive Attack, a sense of confidence abounded. The country was going through its ‘Cool Britannia’ phase, where the likes of Blur, Oasis, Portishead, Goldie and The Spice Girls were shining beacons of the nation’s creative success. Noel Gallagher was taking tea with Prime Minister Tony Blair in Downing Street, and the Mercury Music Awards was the place to be. Gomez had just won, showing the strength and quality of new home grown talent.

Sometimes you can be too close to something, to see the big picture. Last year, the UK music industry posted a staggering 9.5% increase in sales over the same period in 2016. This musical tidal wave was driven by streaming – which increased by a massive 51.5% last year to over 68 million albums. This was more than enough to offset the falling sales of something that a decade ago was seen as the future of music – digital downloads – which tumbled 23.4%. Compact Discs also dropped by 12%; this is a lot but the format still isn’t falling off a cliff, as some had predicted. Indeed, you might argue that rumours of CD’s demise have been greatly exaggerated.

2017’s soaring amount of streamed music meant that – thanks to the likes of Spotify and Apple Music – British music fans bought the equivalent of over 135 million albums across all formats. This works out in value terms to £1.2 billion, which is a rise of almost 10%. The total value of Britain’s entertainment market is now at an all-time high of £7.2 billion, and it’s the third year in a row that it has grown, after a decade of decline previously. It is clear that technology is finally catching up with the way that people want to consume music – quick and easy without being burdened by physical media, or something that they have to download and manage. Last year was the first time that over half of all albums purchased were streamed. Top titles included Ed Sheeran’s Divide, Rag’n’Bone Man’s Human, Sam Smith’s The Thrill Of It All and Little Mix’s Glory Days.

Barely had the dust settled on last year and Spotify declared it had reached a cool seventy million subscribers. Four months earlier, it had boasted sixty million. This puts the Swedish company well ahead of Apple Music, which in September 2017 told Billboard that it had over thirty million ­paying accounts. Spotify’s good news comes on the back of its announcement that the company is planning to list on the New York Stock Exchange. Valued at over £14 billion, it will be one of the biggest consumer tech companies to go public for a long time.

This good news points at the direction of travel for the global music industry, but dig a little deeper and it’s clear that things are very much still in state of flux. Despite all its subscribers, Spotify is still struggling to make money from its model; in 2016 it turned over £2.5 billion, but still lost £475 million, it is reported. The company says it has been investing heavily in product development and personnel, while cutting new deals with major music labels. Over at rival Apple Music, it is bringing far more revenue from a far smaller user base – and this is just a small proportion of Apple’s overall income. This means Apple is under less pressure to make money from streaming.

British music buying trends are all the more interesting because 2017 witnessed soaring vinyl LP sales, according to the BPI. They’re up by 27% to 4.1 million, which is of course just a small fraction of digitally streamed albums, yet it shows that there’s a still dedicated audience for physical formats. This echoes the slower than anticipated decline in Compact Disc. Vinyl sales are now the highest since 1991 when Nirvana’s Nevermind was released, which makes one reflect that – as veteran BBC motorsport commentator used to say of Formula One racing – “anything can happen, and it usually does…”

So, digital streaming is soaring but still not quite paying its keep, physical formats remain a substantial £2 billion business and the British music buyers are the hungriest they have been for music in a generation. That’s why all dCS digital players offer deep integration with popular streaming platforms, state-of-the-art silver disc replay and the best sounding electronics to play music of the past, present and future.

2017

December

We Wish You A Merry Christmas
22nd December 2017

To everyone who we have spent time with either in person or virtually we are truly thankful to you all for your support this year. Celebrating our 30th Anniversary and launching the Vivaldi One has given us many opportunities to meet so many wonderful people. 2018 is set to be another exciting year for us.
We couldn’t do it without your passion. We hope that you have many hours free over the holidays to indulge in your music collection!

Wishing you all a Very Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year from all the team at dCS.

We’ll be back 2nd January 2018!

MQA UPDATE FOR ROSSINI – RELEASED
12th December 2017

dCS are pleased to (finally) announce the availability of the MQA update for Rossini Player and Rossini DAC.

Software version 1.10 and network version 368 ,

Updates can be performed from the internet using the Rossini app. Tap, Configuration > Version > Check for Updates

MQA Update for Vivaldi One, Network Bridge & Vivaldi DAC & Upsampler to follow.

 

Information from original MQA press release

MQA, Master Quality Authenticated, provides a means to efficiently encode and transmit high
resolution audio. MQA is based on the axiom that, in audio, high resolution can be more
accurately defined in the analogue domain in terms of temporal fine structure and lack of
modulation noise, than by any description in the digital domain, particularly one that relies on
sample rate or bit depth numbers.

MQA works by converting the analogue music to digital and back to analogue again. The
conceptual framework models analogue as an infinite sample rate representation, which can be
approximated by a hierarchical chain of downward and upward splines. The MQA encoder takes
account of and corrects aspects of the original analogue-to-digital and studio preparation chain.
Although a listener can enjoy the encoded stream at CD quality without a decoder, the best
result comes with an MQA Decoder, or a combination of MQA Core Decoder and Renderer,
which reconstructs exactly what was heard in the studio.
The MQA Renderer performs sampling reconstruction under song-by-song instruction from the
encoder, while at the same time matching and optimising the attached DAC to deliver an
authenticated analogue output.

MQA Decoders include a Renderer which is customised for each built-in digital-to-analogue
converter. Generally, the converter includes an integrated DAC which is not wholly configurable
and may have some performance limitations. For this reason, most MQA decoders include
precompensation
for the built-in converter.

dCS does not use IC converters in its DACs; instead the process of reconstructing analogue
from the digital stream is entirely custom, using specific software and discrete hardware to make
a DAC. However, unlike other non-integrated DACs, the dCS is still modelled on reconstruction
using oversampling, filtering and high-speed conversion.

David Steven, Managing Director, dCS states:

“The dCS and MQA teams have been in discussion, development and testing for almost a year.
This is a unique and exciting implementation made possible by the flexibility and capability of
our platform, as well as the fact that both companies have aligned philosophies, strong mutual
respect and trust.”

Bob Stuart, Founder & CTO, MQA adds:

“In the case of the dCS Rossini, the MQA and dCS teams were able to work together to develop
code which accurately matched the MQA hierarchical ideal reconstruction to analogue. This
MQA implementation is unique, as it is the first opportunity to enable a DAC which, by providing
exact rendering to beyond 16x (768 kHz), matches the desired temporal response with very low
modulation noise.”

November

October

dCS LAUNCHES MQA SUPPORT ACROSS PRODUCT RANGES
19th October 2017

dCS announces the release of a software update that provides MQA compatibility to all
current product ranges – bringing the MQA experience into what many regard as the best
digital music source in the world.

MQA, Master Quality Authenticated, provides a means to efficiently encode and transmit high
resolution audio. MQA is based on the axiom that, in audio, high resolution can be more
accurately defined in the analogue domain in terms of temporal fine structure and lack of
modulation noise, than by any description in the digital domain, particularly one that relies on
sample rate or bit depth numbers.

MQA works by converting the analogue music to digital and back to analogue again. The
conceptual framework models analogue as an infinite sample rate representation, which can be
approximated by a hierarchical chain of downward and upward splines. The MQA encoder takes
account of and corrects aspects of the original analogue-to-digital and studio preparation chain.
Although a listener can enjoy the encoded stream at CD quality without a decoder, the best
result comes with an MQA Decoder, or a combination of MQA Core Decoder and Renderer,
which reconstructs exactly what was heard in the studio.
The MQA Renderer performs sampling reconstruction under song-by-song instruction from the
encoder, while at the same time matching and optimising the attached DAC to deliver an
authenticated analogue output.

MQA Decoders include a Renderer which is customised for each built-in digital-to-analogue
converter. Generally, the converter includes an integrated DAC which is not wholly configurable
and may have some performance limitations. For this reason, most MQA decoders include
precompensation
for the built-in converter.

dCS does not use IC converters in its DACs; instead the process of reconstructing analogue
from the digital stream is entirely custom, using specific software and discrete hardware to make
a DAC. However, unlike other non-integrated DACs, the dCS is still modelled on reconstruction
using oversampling, filtering and high-speed conversion.

David Steven, Managing Director, dCS states:

“The dCS and MQA teams have been in discussion, development and testing for almost a year.
This is a unique and exciting implementation made possible by the flexibility and capability of
our platform, as well as the fact that both companies have aligned philosophies, strong mutual
respect and trust.”

Bob Stuart, Founder & CTO, MQA adds:

“In the case of the dCS Rossini, the MQA and dCS teams were able to work together to develop
code which accurately matched the MQA hierarchical ideal reconstruction to analogue. This
MQA implementation is unique, as it is the first opportunity to enable a DAC which, by providing
exact rendering to beyond 16x (768 kHz), matches the desired temporal response with very low
modulation noise.”

dCS owners can update their firmware to support MQA via the ‘internet download and update’
functionality.

Availability:
dCS Rossini – October 2017
dCS Vivaldi One – November 2017
dCS Network Bridge – November 2017
dCS Vivaldi DAC & Upsampler – December 2017

dCS LAUNCHES LIMITED EDITION VIVALDI ONE DIGITAL MUSIC  SYSTEM, MARKING THIRTY YEARS OF UNRIVALLED EXCELLENCE
dCS LAUNCHES LIMITED EDITION VIVALDI ONE DIGITAL MUSIC SYSTEM, MARKING THIRTY YEARS OF UNRIVALLED EXCELLENCE
19th October 2017

dCS proudly announces Vivaldi One – a limited edition digital music player
specially designed to mark the company’s thirtieth anniversary. Limited to just 250 uniquely numbered pieces, it puts an integral CD/SACD transport alongside the latest dCS Ring DAC in a single box, together with state-of-the-art network streaming functionality.

Vivaldi is the dCS flagship line, and the culmination of three decades of the company’s legendary expertise in music recording and playback. Having pioneered high resolution digital audio in both professional and consumer fields, championed the benefits of upsampling and clocking, and originated asynchronous USB for computer audio, dCS has an exceptional and proven track record. To commemorate this, the new Vivaldi One offers state-of-the-art technology inside, and superlative style outside…

Wholly designed and manufactured in Great Britain, Vivaldi One’s aerospace-grade aluminum casework comes in a choice of three exquisite finishes, never before seen on dCS products. The Gloss White and Piano Black versions are finished by HQ Lacquer, a family-owned British business of over three decades’ standing, famed for its high quality finishes. After meticulous paintwork, multiple lacquer coats are applied and then heat-cured for days, for glass-like smoothness. Alternatively, Vivaldi One can be supplied plated in Decoplate™ 24K Gold or other precious metal by FH Lambert Ltd., the world-renowned specialist in decorative metal plating. This highest grade of gold plate confers a lavish, opulent feel and accentuates the fascia’s subtle curves.

Vivaldi One features the Esoteric VRDS Neo™ SACD-capable transport, allied to the latest generation dCS Ring DAC. It first appeared in high end dCS studio equipment nearly three decades ago, and has been continually refined and improved since then. Effectively a digital signal processing computer, the dCS Ring DAC and Digital Processing Platform runs PCM up to 24-bit, 384kS/s, DSD up to DSD128 and DSD in DOP format. Vivaldi One also supports all major lossless codecs including MQA. Driven by custom-designed software running on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chips, Digital Signal Processing (DSP) chips and a microcontroller system. Offering twice the logic capacity of previous generations, Vivaldi One houses the latest 2.0 Ring DAC with double speed mapper, making it the highest expression of the dCS art. The result is an extraordinarily translucent sound, giving an exceptionally realistic window on the music being played.

Reflecting the unique nature of Vivaldi One, each piece is personally supplied to the customer by an expert dCS engineer, who will configure it to get the best possible sound. Its extensive networking capabilities – including its ability to stream music from NAS drives and online services such as TIDAL™ and Spotify Connect™ over Ethernet, from Apple devices via Airplay™, and audio via industry-standard USB, AES and S/PDIF digital inputs – will be carefully configured to the customer’s needs.

Commemorating the company’s thirtieth anniversary, Vivaldi One also comes supplied with a specially curated music collection, reflecting the musical passions of the dCS designers, engineers and technicians who created Vivaldi One – plus an engraved plate showing its individual serial number.

Handmade in the United Kingdom, Vivaldi One embodies all that’s best about dCS in one beautifully crafted box. It is built to last, and perform to the very highest standard for many decades to come. This timeless piece retails from £55,000, and is available from June 2017.
Summary:

  • dCS Vivaldi One (£55,000); limited numbered edition of 250 pieces
  • Integral Esoteric VRDS NEO transport for CD and SACD playback
  • Latest generation dCS Ring DAC 2.0 and digital processing platform in one box
  • choice of superlative Gloss White, Piano Black and 24-carat gold finishes
  • Digital inputs include Gigabit network, asynchronous USB, AES, BNC and S/PDIF
  • Built-in Roon Ready, TIDAL, Apple Airplay and Spotify Connect functionality.
  • Vivaldi One’s control app lets listeners manage their playback from any source.
  • Network streaming section runs at up to 24-bit, 384kS/s and DSD128, supporting all major lossless codecs (including MQA), plus DSD in DoP format and native DSD.
  • multi-stage power regulation and twin mains transformers
  • firmware-upgradeable for future functionality and performance upgrades
  • specially installed for the customer by dCS engineers
  • Specially curated dCS celebratory music collection

Availability:
June 2017

About dCS:
Since 1987 dCS has been at the forefront of digital audio, creating world-beating,
life-enhancing products that are a unique synthesis of exact science and creative
imagination. Each of our award-winning product ranges sets the standard within its
class for technical excellence and musical performance. As a result, dCS digital
playback systems are unrivalled in their ability to make music.

All dCS products are designed and manufactured in the United Kingdom using proprietary
technology, and materials and components of the highest quality. A carefully judged
balance of our unique heritage and world-class engineering ensures there is a rich
history of ground-breaking innovation inside every dCS system.

September

HiFi + Network Bridge, Equipment Reviews
HiFi + Network Bridge, Equipment Reviews
29th September 2017

Review by Rafael Todes

Download
HIFI CRITIC – Network Bridge
HIFI CRITIC – Network Bridge
29th September 2017

Review by Rafael Todes and Martin Colloms

Download

May

April

Sound Bytes
12th April 2017

Thirty years ago, the nineteen eighties was at its height. Lethal Weapon and Dirty Dancing were packing cinemas across the western world, Michael Jackson was soaring up the album charts with BAD, and U2 was wowing the rock world with The Joshua Tree. The Simpsons appeared on TV for the first time, and Prozac made its world debut. Reagan, Gorbachev and Thatcher were the world’s leading statespeople, with the latter signing the Single European Act, bring about the formation of the European Union. Many Brits will remember ‘black Monday’ – when billions of Pounds were wiped off the value of stocks – and the ‘great storm’ which laid waste to much of southern England, too.

In the midst of this tumultuous year, a tiny tech start-up appeared in Castle Park, Cambridge. Data Conversion Systems Ltd. was set up to do electronics engineering consultancy work, starting with Ferranti, Marconi Avionics and British Aerospace, developing RAF Harrier and Typhoon radar systems. Since then, dCS has come a very long way – emerging to become one of the formative forces in high end hi-fi, all around the world. No other company can accurately claim to have played such a pivotal role in this development of digital audio as dCS.

Like many great organisations, it was a single individual who stamped his personality and his genius on this one. dCS founder Mike Story was described by those who worked for him as something a firebrand, and a maverick design engineer of the very highest order. Right from the start, dCS worked on advanced mathematical and scientific challenges. It became a key defence contractor with ultra-specialised digital signal processing know-how. “In his technical field,” remembers former dCS Executive Chairman Derek Fuller, “Mike was world class, truly ‘A-star’ material…”

Wanting to study electronics at Oxford, Story was disappointed to find there was no such course offered and so instead chose physics. After a short stint doing a PhD in electrochemistry at Imperial, he decided that electronics was for him, formed a team and got venture capital backing to start dCS. “We were primarily a consultancy, and people would come to us with interesting and challenging problems, and we would attempt to fix them”, explains dCS Technical Director Andy McHarg.

At this time, the prime mover on the world digital audio scene was Philips. The Dutch consumer electronics giant invested hugely in a series of DAC chips and digital filters, not only to fit to its own highly successful CD players, but also for a great many OEM designs for other manufacturers too. These sixteen bit, four times oversampling machines sounded very respectable considering their modest price points, doing much to win over a sceptical hi-fi world to the digital audio cause. At the same time, Japanese manufacturers like Sony did much to improve Compact Disc with a series of high end CD players, transports and DACs – paving the way for the high end digital audiophile scene.

At this time, dCS was not involved with audio professionally. Many employees were interested, and indeed some were gifted musicians, but the move to music making didn’t come until the end of the Cold War, and the so-called ‘peace dividend’. The spectacular yet unforeseen collapse of the Soviet Union led to the West no longer needing to spend quite such huge sums of money on defence, and dCS found British government contracts drying up. Soon however, the BBC came to the Cambridge-based company for consultancy work on their DAT machines, and slowly more audio-related work was completed. “In 1988,” McHarg remembers, “there was a shift when we started designing the first dCS 900, applying a lot of what we had done for the military in it. With radar you need extremely high signal to noise ratio, and we’d got that with our analogue-to-digital converters we had in the Harrier and Typhoon.”

1989’s 900 was the first fully rounded dCS audio product, an ultra high quality analogue-to-digital converter. Indeed, it was the world’s first 24-bit design, and used the now-legendary Ring DAC circuit. From this point on, there was no going back. Recording studio legends such as Bob Ludwig from Gateway Mastering, Bert van der Wolf at Northstar Recording and arranger/composer Tony Faulkner soon swore by this product. The 950 followed in 1993 – the partnering DAC to the 900 – and it fast became a worldwide sensation, offering professionals and audiophiles alike the chance to experience a state-of-the-art digital-to-analogue converter, capable of superlative quality playback.

Since then, dCS has never stayed out of hi-fi headlines. With a string of innovations to its name – from the first hi-res DAC, the first upsampler, pioneering work in clocking and the first asynchronous USB digital input – the Cambridge brand has gone from strength to strength. Now in its thirtieth year, the company isn’t resting on its laurels, as the world shall soon see…

March

Play for today
7th March 2017

For the best part of fifty years, the music industry sold physical products – 45RPM singles, LP records, cassettes and Compact Discs – in vast quantities to people who went to shops to buy them and take them home. Massive amounts of music were moved from manufacturing plants to distribution depots and then a network of retailers, most of which were on the high street of your local town. At the same time, it ran music charts – compiled by market research companies such as Gallup – which broadcasters closely relied on. What was hot, and what was not, informed record shops what to buy (to sell to their customers), and told radio stations what to play. It was a complex web, but it worked seamlessly and generated vast amounts of money for many people in the loop.

The ‘underbelly’ of the system was so-called ‘plugging’. Record companies employed people to go around radio stations and persuade them to play their new releases. Pluggers charmed station programmers, to get their wares on air. At the same time, the market research companies that compiled the music charts ran a network of designated ‘chart return’ record shops. In effect, if you bought your Adam and The Ants single in a particular store, it would count as a sale whereas in some other shops in didn’t. For nearly half a century, the music industry ran a tight ship – an ever repeating cycle of speculatively signing new artists up, recording and releasing their records, plugging them, getting them radio play, and then waiting for the sales – and hoping for a high chart position which would guarantee even more. Now though, in the past five or so years, that has all changed because of streaming.

In 2017, playlists are the order of the day – they have become the default mechanism by which vast numbers of people listen to their favourite music, and discover new material too. Instead of pluggers and radio station programme managers, music recommendation algorithms are being used to introduce us to new sounds; the idea being that if you like, say, Porcupine Tree, you may well discover a soft spot for Peter Gabriel-era Genesis. In other words, these clever bits of computer code number crunch vast amounts of people’s choices which are similar to your own in some key ways, and then recommend artists and albums you may not yet have heard of. In the old days, you either had to stand in a crowded record shop on Saturday afternoon for a few hours and chat to the owner, or have a big brother who didn’t mind sharing his own voyage of musical discovery with you.

Although computer-generated advice sounds like a great idea, there has been a strong movement against it. Music is such a personal thing, and is tied in with people’s view of themselves and their world. For example, although there are superficial similarities, many Genesis fans might not be happy to be recommended a Marillion LP. For that reason, a trend for ‘curated’ playlists has emerged, when real human experts carefully manage what they think fans of particular types of music will like. The likes of Beats Music (now Apple Music) have been very vocal about the importance of this. Other players such as Spotify have stayed with more advanced algorithms, with Discover Weekly and Release Radar. These are important for driving streams within the Spotify ecosystem, but curated playlists still remain key. To this end, we’re now seeing a business of pitching playlist owners – a sort of twenty first century music plugging…

Instead of the record companies trying to sniff out chart return stores for better sales, these days people concern themselves with ‘skip rates’. A company may be able to convince a streaming curator to include their track, but if too many people then skip it, it’s unlikely to go on other playlists. There’s also the importance of ranking order on a playlist; if a song is fairly low down, it may be played less but is less likely to be skipped, because many listeners will be running the stream as background music and in a more laid-back mood. By contrast, if the record companies pitch a new artist to the playlist curator and he puts it towards the top of the playlist, it’s likely to have a far higher skip-rate because people often want familiar hits to get them going. The secret for record labels pitching tracks to playlist curators is to find the right balance between audience size, number of streams, and skip rates.

Welcome then to the music industry, twenty first century-style. Fifty years ago, it was about pushing your new single on the radio and getting it into the shops on time. Now it’s about getting attention on the internet – using a successful online strategy that is able to grab and hold people’s attention via playlists on increasingly popular streaming services. The world is a different place.

February

DAT’s Entertainment
7th February 2017

When Sony introduced Digital Audio Tape thirty years ago, many people genuinely thought it to be the future of music. Looked at now though, DAT is an irrelevance – a long gone and largely forgotten curio from those awkward early days of consumer digital audio.

The year after its launch – 1988 – saw Compact Cassette replace the vinyl LP as Britain’s best selling music format. So the idea of another serial-access tape system, wasn’t necessarily a turn off back then. Indeed, many people thought DAT to be the very height of sophistication – its tape was fully enclosed from the outside world, less than half the size of cassette and able to carry up to 180 minutes of music. Better still, it was digital – which was of course the future of everything, as far as eighties punters were concerned. Digital fuel injection, digital watches, digital climate control, Digital Audio Tape; what was not to like?

Indeed the hi-fi magazines of the day were intrigued, many seeing it as an exciting new technology. Okay, so it may have been a traditional magnetic tape-based format in an increasingly random-access laser disc world, but it did promise superior sound to CD. As we all know, silver discs of the day only allowed 16-bit, 44.1kHz resolution, but new-fangled DAT ran at a sampling frequency of 48kHz – and therefore represented the state of the art. No consumer digital audio system bettered it. Only in the pro sphere was it surpassed, when a decade or so later dCS analogue-to-digital converters worked with the Nagra D recorder to make the first 24/96 hi-res recordings possible.
Although DAT’s 48kHz sampling rate doesn’t seem much these days, Compact Disc’s  was so low that the sound-degrading phase effects from its filtering got worryingly close to the audio band. DAT on the other hand lifted these up just a touch, to where they were far less consequential to the sound. The result was a larger improvement in sonics than you might expect; that extra headroom made one hell of a difference. Early demonstrations of DAT showed a substantially sweeter and crisper sound; the later machines could be switched to record at Compact Disc’s lower resolution, and when you did this the difference was clear to hear. The hi-fi press was certainly charmed; one specialist magazine even went so far as to claim, “DAT wipes out CD”, on its front cover.

With all the marketing muscle of the giant Sony Corporation behind it, this new format could hardly fail, could it? Well, exactly one decade earlier, the Japanese giant had just discontinued its short-lived Elcaset format – a kind of reel-to-reel tape inside a VHS-sized cassette. This gave excellent analogue sound, but no one cared because it was too big for consumers already used to the far smaller Compact Cassette. Surely then, the dinky DAT format could succeed? Sony certainly thought so, and began releasing albums in its native Japan, from avant-garde artists such as New Order and Ryuichi Sakamoto.

Yet it was not to be. Despite having a host of clever features that Compact Cassette lacked, such as real time tape counting and track numbering, DAT did not prevail. Even its superior sound to CD couldn’t compensate, and sales barely got off the ground. People realised it was too expensive, fiddly and sometimes quite unreliable too. It certainly wasn’t the sort of object that you could throw into your car’s glovebox, next to a bag of melted Werther’s Originals.

Then suddenly the format took off in recording studios. Just when we least expected it, a generation of small-to-medium sized studios began using DAT as a mastering medium. This happened to coincide with a surge in new music-making technology; hard disk recording was becoming affordable, and songs were now being crafted on computers with Cubase. MIDI synthesisers and sequencers were getting cheaper, and whole dance music records could be laid down digitally then mastered for posterity on – of all things – DAT. As is so often the case with audio formats, it ended up being used for a different purpose than was originally intended. Oddly, DAT became cool amongst a generation of small studio-based nineties musicians.

Plug a classic Sony DAT player into a modern dCS DAC now, and it’s surprising how good it sounds. A well fettled DAT machine is still capable of working as a fine digital transport, and the developments in DAC technology that dCS has brought in the intervening years have done nothing but good to the old format’s sound. Even though the Bitstream DACs fitted to most DAT recorders were very highly regarded at the time, they are miles behind a Debussy, for example. So farewell to an ill-fated format that meant something to some people for some time; it joins the ranks of Digital Compact Cassette (DCC) and MiniDisc (MD) in the story of doomed digital audio. Despite this, never forget that for a short period in the late eighties, it really did look like the future.