When Sony introduced Digital Audio Tape thirty years ago, many people genuinely thought it to be the future of music. Looked at now though, DAT is an irrelevance – a long gone and largely forgotten curio from those awkward early days of consumer digital audio.
The year after its launch – 1988 – saw Compact Cassette replace the vinyl LP as Britain’s best selling music format. So the idea of another serial-access tape system, wasn’t necessarily a turn off back then. Indeed, many people thought DAT to be the very height of sophistication – its tape was fully enclosed from the outside world, less than half the size of cassette and able to carry up to 180 minutes of music. Better still, it was digital – which was of course the future of everything, as far as eighties punters were concerned. Digital fuel injection, digital watches, digital climate control, Digital Audio Tape; what was not to like?
Indeed the hi-fi magazines of the day were intrigued, many seeing it as an exciting new technology. Okay, so it may have been a traditional magnetic tape-based format in an increasingly random-access laser disc world, but it did promise superior sound to CD. As we all know, silver discs of the day only allowed 16-bit, 44.1kHz resolution, but new-fangled DAT ran at a sampling frequency of 48kHz – and therefore represented the state of the art. No consumer digital audio system bettered it. Only in the pro sphere was it surpassed, when a decade or so later dCS analogue-to-digital converters worked with the Nagra D recorder to make the first 24/96 hi-res recordings possible.
Although DAT’s 48kHz sampling rate doesn’t seem much these days, Compact Disc’s was so low that the sound-degrading phase effects from its filtering got worryingly close to the audio band. DAT on the other hand lifted these up just a touch, to where they were far less consequential to the sound. The result was a larger improvement in sonics than you might expect; that extra headroom made one hell of a difference. Early demonstrations of DAT showed a substantially sweeter and crisper sound; the later machines could be switched to record at Compact Disc’s lower resolution, and when you did this the difference was clear to hear. The hi-fi press was certainly charmed; one specialist magazine even went so far as to claim, “DAT wipes out CD”, on its front cover.
With all the marketing muscle of the giant Sony Corporation behind it, this new format could hardly fail, could it? Well, exactly one decade earlier, the Japanese giant had just discontinued its short-lived Elcaset format – a kind of reel-to-reel tape inside a VHS-sized cassette. This gave excellent analogue sound, but no one cared because it was too big for consumers already used to the far smaller Compact Cassette. Surely then, the dinky DAT format could succeed? Sony certainly thought so, and began releasing albums in its native Japan, from avant-garde artists such as New Order and Ryuichi Sakamoto.
Yet it was not to be. Despite having a host of clever features that Compact Cassette lacked, such as real time tape counting and track numbering, DAT did not prevail. Even its superior sound to CD couldn’t compensate, and sales barely got off the ground. People realised it was too expensive, fiddly and sometimes quite unreliable too. It certainly wasn’t the sort of object that you could throw into your car’s glovebox, next to a bag of melted Werther’s Originals.
Then suddenly the format took off in recording studios. Just when we least expected it, a generation of small-to-medium sized studios began using DAT as a mastering medium. This happened to coincide with a surge in new music-making technology; hard disk recording was becoming affordable, and songs were now being crafted on computers with Cubase. MIDI synthesisers and sequencers were getting cheaper, and whole dance music records could be laid down digitally then mastered for posterity on – of all things – DAT. As is so often the case with audio formats, it ended up being used for a different purpose than was originally intended. Oddly, DAT became cool amongst a generation of small studio-based nineties musicians.
Plug a classic Sony DAT player into a modern dCS DAC now, and it’s surprising how good it sounds. A well fettled DAT machine is still capable of working as a fine digital transport, and the developments in DAC technology that dCS has brought in the intervening years have done nothing but good to the old format’s sound. Even though the Bitstream DACs fitted to most DAT recorders were very highly regarded at the time, they are miles behind a Debussy, for example. So farewell to an ill-fated format that meant something to some people for some time; it joins the ranks of Digital Compact Cassette (DCC) and MiniDisc (MD) in the story of doomed digital audio. Despite this, never forget that for a short period in the late eighties, it really did look like the future.
When Truman Capote died in 1984, fellow writer Gore Vidal waggishly suggested that he had made a great career move. The phrase caught on, and has been used in the music industry ever since – cynically wheeled out immediately after the passing of stars like Michael Jackson. Sadly, 2016 saw it back again – in a miserable year for fans of David Bowie, Motorhead, Prince, Leonard Cohen, Status Quo, George Michael, and many more. It has however kept the music industry in the style to which it is accustomed, with sales up by 1.5% to 123 million albums in a period of rapid technological change…
Remarkably, the vinyl LP enjoyed its best year in a generation, with over 3.2 million sold – according to the just-released British Phonographic Industry Official UK Recorded Music Market Report, 2016. Hitting a high not seen since Simply Red’s Stars topped the album charts in 1998, sales rose by a whopping 53%. It’s a sobering thought that a decade ago, just 200,000 pieces of black plastic were sold; after this sales began rising year-on-year. The BPI reports that over thirty titles sold over 10,000 copies last year, compared to just ten the year before. Vinyl LPs now account for nearly five per cent of the album market. Without doubt, this has been driven by the recent spate of rock superstar deaths; the biggest-selling vinyl artist was David Bowie with five albums posthumously featuring in the top-thirty best-sellers, including last album Blackstar. This was 2016’s best selling LP, and shifted twice as many copies as 2015’s chart-topper, Adele’s 25.
Fascinatingly, vinyl seems to be part of a new phenomenon in the way that people are now buying music. The business calls it ‘multi-channel’, but this isn’t meant as a synonym for ‘surround sound’; rather it means ‘multi-format’ because it appears that many fans are now streaming music and then buying a ‘physical copy’ of it on LP, simply to own the artefact. So the boom in vinyl sales is actually accompanying, and complementing, a boom in streaming – this has increased over two-thirds (68%) to 45 billion audio streams served in 2016. Indeed, December was the first ever 1 billion stream month in the UK. Putting this into context, weekly streams totalled less than 200 million at the start of 2014. Audio streaming now accounts for well over a third (36.4 per cent) of all UK music consumption, according to the BPI. The demand for streaming services such as Spotify, Apple, Deezer and Tidal means that on average, 1,500 songs were streamed for each of the UK’s 27 million households last year, and the BPI cheerfully points out that this does not include the huge number of unofficial streams on video platforms such as YouTube…
The demand for vinyl illustrates the enduring appeal of music on physical formats then, particularly in a ‘multi-channel’ world where consumers like discovering new music through streaming, but also want to buy, own and collect the recordings they love on LP. Indeed, the phenomenon seems to be happening to an extent with Compact Disc too – UK sales in 2016 actually held out better than expected, with a decline of just 11.7%. Combined with vinyl LPs, CDs and other physical formats still account for around 41% of British music buying, which is not to be sneezed at!
Vanessa Higgins, CEO Regent Street and Gold Bar Records, and an independent label member of the BPI Council, said that, “fans are listening to music in so many ways now – we’ve definitely entered a multi-channel era. Millennials, who’ve grown up digital, are increasingly choosing to experience both current and heritage artists on vinyl also. Meanwhile older baby-boomers are embracing streaming alongside their record collections. And, impressively, in between all that, there is still more than enough space for the CD, which remains popular both with upcoming artists, who need an attractive physical product, and consumers, who still like to gift, collect and own the recordings they love.”
Geoff Taylor, the BPI’s Chief Executive notes that audio streaming has increased by 500 per cent since 2013, and yet – led by sales of David Bowie – demand for vinyl is at levels not seen since the nineties. “This is indicative of the promise of a new era for music, where recorded music’s investments in a digital future fuel compelling benefits for fans, artists and the entire music ecosystem”, he says.
All of which is jolly good news for the British music industry, which was further bolstered by the fact that seven out of the ten best selling albums of 2016 were UK artists. The likes of Adele, Coldplay, Little Mix, The 1975, Rick Astley, Calvin Harris, Jess Glynne and The Rolling Stones all prized cash from music fans’ pockets last year. Here’s hoping that in 2017, the industry will go from strength to strength, but preferably without the same attrition rate of musical greats!
Time rushes on, waiting for no one. The music industry, which owes its very existence to changing fashions and tastes, is well aware of this. From eight-track cartridges to MiniDisc, there are plenty of examples throughout history where consumer electronics giants working together with record companies have tried and failed to give the public what it thinks we want. This technology-driven business is too faddish and impermanent, and history shows there’s plenty of scope for getting things wrong when companies don’t really know their customers.
Now though, there is another way. The British Phonographic Industry report, Music’s Smart Future: How will Artificial Intelligence impact the music industry?, asks searching questions about the process of getting music to people in the decades ahead. Penned by industry analysts Music Ally, it points out that Artificial Intelligence (AI) is now transforming how music is created, discovered, shared and enjoyed. It’s all done by clever algorithms that find correspondences between consumption patterns; these then go on to produce tailored playlists using contextual data. AI is also used to engage fans in marketing campaigns via chatbots, and is even now beginning to take part in the creative process of songwriting, helping to tailor the music to the customer. We’ve come a very long way from writing guitar chords on the back of a fag packet, down the pub!
The ‘data science’ movement is now reaching into every aspect of our lives, from online shopping to political campaigning. For example, one UK-based data analytics company recently provided precise voter targeting information to British EU referendum campaigners, and to one of the presidential contenders in the United States of America. These same analytical models are used to recommend consumer goods to people based on their previous purchasing history, social media profiles, age, location and income. As Geoff Taylor (Chief Executive BPI & BRIT Awards) puts it, “Music’s DNA is closely entwined with technology, and record labels are already exploring how AI can help to bring artists and fans closer together…”
There has a been a huge increase in investment and experimentation, with new tech-start-ups eager to redefine how we live our lives. The BPI report explains how technology is being used in the recording studio to mimic human voices or even convert images into songs. For example, Brian Eno’s recent release, The Ship, got a computer-composed music video, and software is now available to create symphonies from simple scores to be played by human orchestras. Algorithms are now being used to compose music outright, and we’re seeing this in some computer games.
At the same time, AI is being used to energise fan bases, with chatbots communicating with music fans via Twitter, Facebook Messenger, WhatsApp and other platforms. MTV recently deployed chatbots to engage with European Music Awards viewers, while music ticket selling services are using the same technology to tell fans of forthcoming gigs they might like to visit. Right now this is largely all text-based, but voice synthesis is surely the way forward – with Apple’s Siri, Amazon’s Alexa, and Google Assistant all making early strides towards a sophisticated computer interface that can maximise people’s access to – and enjoyment of – new music. As the BPI observes, “these smart assistants are likely to evolve into our de facto musical concierges around the home and in the car…”
Streaming is at the heart of all this – accounting for nearly a quarter of all UK music consumption last year. Sophisticated algorithms are being used to curate people’s purchasing patterns using the power of ‘big data’. Artificial Intelligence is now working to ‘ultra-personalise’ streaming services, giving suggestions closely tailored to users’ own tastes – with Spotify, Apple Music and Deezer all employing AI to analyse their behaviour to offer context-dependent playlist suggestions. Even variables like the listener’s location and weather now play a part in Google Play’s offerings, it seems. The BPI adds that, “we believe that gut instinct, passion for the music and human experience remain fundamental qualities, but as a sector we should not ignore new tools that allow us to reach fans in innovative new ways.”
Of course, the end result of all this still isn’t at all clear. The positive view is that technology is simply an enabler, helping to put us in touch with all the music we didn’t know that we loved but will. The negative spin is that we are headed for a dystopian future where ‘muzak’ will be piped around our houses all day and night, scientifically chosen not to offend – and at the same time we’ll be trapped in this AI-created bubble, unable to break out from what our smart devices think we want to listen to. It’s still early days however – some Motorhead fans may go on to develop a taste for Mozart for example, proving that humans beings will always be too unpredictable for even the cleverest computer.
Ever since Thomas Edison invented the phonograph in 1877, the way we listen to music has never stopped changing. We’ve seen all manner of ingenious devices – mechanical, electric, electronic and now solid-state – offer themselves up for this noble cause. Of course, the two big hitters so far have been analogue microgroove stereo LP (1958) and Compact Disc digital audio (1982), but networked digital audio streaming is surely the third.
The jury is out on precisely which year the streaming ball started rolling. One could argue that it was 2003, when Slim Devices launched the SliMP3 – an MP3-only device that morphed into the Logitech Squeezebox, and got early adopters into the idea of playing music via computers. Another milestone was when the Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) protocol came of age, laid down as one item in a 73-part international standard (ISO/IEC 29341) in December 2008. Eight years later, here we are in world of network-attached devices which do a vast range of things – including playing music off PC hard drives, or from vast music libraries held on remote disc drives.
Hi-fi designers weren’t slow to understand the potential of network music playback. The dream of a ‘universal music jukebox’ has been a long held one, with every technology doing its best to provide some such functionality. Whether it was a nineteen sixties Garrard auto-changing record player or a Sony multi-disc carousel CD player, two decades later, designers have always pushed towards it. When streamed content arrived a decade or so ago, it was very buggy and hard to use. Now though, it’s beginning to integrate into people’s music listening experience in a relatively straightforward and seamless way. Things are finally taking shape.
The music industry has never been quick to respond to new developments in the way people listen to music – even if it’s good at micromanaging the type of music we’re able to buy. For example, it was slow to realise the potential of Compact Cassette as a prerecorded music medium, taking two decades after the format’s introduction in 1963 to get its act together. Then in 1999, the Recording Industry Association of America tried to litigate the world’s first portable MP3 player – the Diamond Multimedia Rio – out of the way. As recently as April 2003, the launch of iTunes Music Store revolutionised the way we buy music – ending the reign of physical media like CDs – and needless to say, the many industry players were initially reluctant to play ball…
Happily, since then we’ve seen a whole number of factors come together to make streaming work. First, young people are now used to paying for music again – don’t forget that for five years from the late nineties, Napster tempted a generation of music-starved teens into illegally file-sharing their favourite tunes via peer-to-peer networks. It took a while for those same people to get used to paying to download the same product from iTunes. Second, the range of music that’s now online is dramatically wider than it has ever been before. Many great songs that were previously hard-to-find rarities on LP or CD, have finally reached streaming services and up on in ‘the cloud’. Third, the quality has risen from the dire compressed audio of MP3 via Napster right up to CD and latterly hi-res, if you’re prepared to pay. The fact that it’s possible to stream uncompressed 16-bit, 44.1kHz digital is finally persuading some audiophiles to take their silver disc collections down to the charity shop.
Hi-res streaming and downloads will soon be abundant for those who wish to pay for them. It’s not beyond the realms of possibility that the likes of Tidal and Qobuz will soon make much of their revenue from this so-called ‘value-added’, higher quality way of distributing music. Fifteen years ago, major record labels were preaching to us how great DVD-Audio and SACD sounded, only to find that music retailers didn’t want to stock them – because they could make a better return from their shelf space by selling Celine Dion and Simply Red CDs. With streaming however, those economics simply don’t apply anymore. Suddenly, we’re staring a truly multi-format world in the face…
While our top-end products now have streaming functionality built-in, the new dCS Network Bridge has been designed to offer genuinely high quality uPnP streaming to dCS (plus Tidal, Airplay, Spotify Connect and Roon Ready) customers who want to be part of this new musical movement. Whilst we treasure silver discs, we realise that network playback will be part of many people’s music mix in future, and that’s why we have launched this carefully focused niche product. As ever with dCS, the aim has been to deliver superlative sound quality, excellent connectivity and firmware upgradeability for future formats – preparing people for a bright musical future of choice and quality.
What’s the point of hi-fi? Surely, the goal is the closest reproduction of the original sound – but why? And whose ‘original sound’ is it anyway? Indeed many professional musicians don’t see originality as being something to strive for at all, and a good percentage of them simply aren’t interested in high quality sound in their homes. To us audiophiles, this seems bizarre. After all, would Pablo Picasso not enjoy perusing paintings, or Enzo Ferrari not relish watching motorsport?
The solution to this riddle lies in the different way that musicians interact with music, compared to lesser mortals who merely consume it. The listening experience is passive, an attempt to immerse ourselves into the magic made at the time of the performance – to connect emotionally with what’s going on. For the player however, other concerns hold sway. The music is inside them, and their job is to get it out as correctly as they can – alongside many other players all doing the same thing separately, but together. Playing in an orchestra is a sensory challenge on a number of levels. For example, clarinettists sit in the middle of the orchestra – which can stretch sixty feet across the width of the platform, and thirty feet front to back – and it’s essential for them to play in time. Their first duty is to get their cue from those around them, and not a fraction of a second too late. Here, performers really don’t want stereo imaging, and many report they can only function well when everything seems to come from a point source just above the music desk.
Of course, this is totally at odds with the needs of classical music loving hi-fi enthusiasts, who regard the accurate recreation of the recorded acoustic as sacrosanct. Indeed, some musicians who are also audiophiles tend to chose loudspeakers according to their perspective as a player, much to the amusement of their dealers. They’ve been known to stand between the speakers in the dem room with their backs to the wall, so they can get a feel for how the system reproduces the performance from their point of view as a musician in the orchestra. One retailer identified a customer – who played under some of the best batons in the business, from Baird and Beecham, to Giulini, Klemperer and Schwarzkopf – because he did precisely this.
For a classical musician, feedback is what it’s all about – the human intuition that drives great musicians and orchestras. An accomplished soloist once said, “a player has to rely on this for judgement of what and how he is doing. That is how some halls get their reputations for good acoustics, even when the audience fails to get the benefit. Feedback in the Royal Festival Hall used to be poor: it was impossible to know how loud or quiet to be. The Usher Hall in Edinburgh was marvellous in this respect. Doing Gerontius, after minimal rehearsal, in Canterbury Cathedral was a curiously remote and not yet mystic, experience. In that vast echo chamber one could not rely on one’s ears. The conductor had to be watched with ferocious concentration, otherwise one was simply lost in space.”
Some concert halls sound great for the players, but not the audience. So how can a serious hi-fi system reflect this? It gives a window onto the world from a place in space that musicians sometimes don’t want to be. “The City Hall in Birmingham was ballyhooed to the skies by the musicians who first performed there, but the sound for the audience was jumbled in all but a few seats, and even there the steel railings that stopped us falling out of the circle into the stalls resonated furiously. I found one ringing a true B natural, others off a bit. As a rule I try in most halls for a seat in the front row of the circle, and at all costs avoid seats under it, where there is no bass to be heard.”
Not all professional musicians are quite as curmudgeonly though – and many happily invest in top-flight audio equipment for their own homes. Some report that it’s the fine detail and natural attack that pleases them, giving “the honest revelation of phrasing.” The sound doesn’t have to be exciting, it must be correct. As we listen to music, we all make inferences, and one musician reports that for him the point of great hi-fi is that, “at least you know what to infer.” Therein lies the rub – they use hi-fi is a tool to help bring the score to life, rather than delivering an audience-centred view of the proceedings. Alternatively, as one wag of a clarinettist once observed, perhaps the reason that so many classical musicians aren’t interested in hi-fi is that they have been deafened by the rest of the orchestra. “You’ve never heard such a racket unless you have been on the inside!”
Seventy years ago, Peter Goldmark and Howard H. Scott were putting the finishing touches to the Long Playing record, the new music storage format that was to be unveiled by Columbia records in 1948. Hi-fi was in its infancy, but this heralded the start of its golden age – one that stretched right up to the late nineteen eighties, propelled by Compact Disc launched in 1982. Of course, the industry is still going great guns, but is a more globalised and diverse one now, and less in the media spotlight as the world’s press obsesses on smartphones and associated gadgets – none of which were available when consumer audio reigned supreme.
As with all history, the danger is that we take it for granted. The twenty first century world – although still highly imperfect – is a far safer and nicer place than the one of a hundred years ago for example, thanks to massive advances in science and medicine. Hi-fi too didn’t just magically arrive in this place, it too was the result of great struggles over many decades. It is now cheaper and more accessible than ever, and to all intents and purposes, so much better too. Developments in analogue audio, and then digital, have brought sources to ever higher planes, amplifiers have improved and loudspeakers have used high tech materials and powerful computer design packages to raise their game also. read more…
According to a study from Queen Mary University of London, listeners can hear a difference between standard audio and better-than-CD quality, high resolution audio. The report compared data from over 12,000 different trials from eighteen studies, where participants were asked to discriminate between samples of music in different formats. Dr Joshua Reiss of QMUL’s Centre for Digital Music in the School of Electronic Engineering and Computer Science said, “Audio purists and the audio industry should welcome these findings – our study finds high resolution audio has a small but important advantage in its quality of reproduction over standard audio content.”
Of course, this will not come as a complete surprise to the audiophiles reading this – in other news, the Pope is a Catholic and British summers are a wash-out! But it’s interesting that people thought there was a need for such a study in the first place, and secondly the results have been reported with a degree of surprise. Most audiophiles will be well aware that you don’t need to own a dCS digital front end to tell the difference – even a £500 DAC on the end of a PC will show an improvement, providing the source files are true hi-res ones. Yet the perception in the wider public is often that actually, hi-res audio is a bit of a gimmick, and they themselves can’t really hear the difference. Ironically of course, the very same people who say this may happily discard a perfectly good three year-old fifty inch flatscreen television, because it doesn’t have the latest high definition picture capability. read more…
After nearly two years of concerted development, the new dCS Rossini is now on sale. It comes in two versions, DAC and Player – the latter featuring an CD transport mechanism built in. As you would expect from a major new dCS product, much effort went into sourcing this, and modifying to our own requirements. Sadly, the Esoteric mechanism used on the Puccini was no longer available, so the design team spent a long time searching for a replacement.
dCS Technical Director Andy McHarg recalls, “it was very difficult to find anything that met the technical specification. There are countless ROM-type mechanisms on the market and they’re mostly cheap and nasty. The other problem is that, as a rule, you’ve got to burst the audio out of them which we don’t really want to do. That’s why we ruled these out.”
Instead, a selection of bespoke CD mechs were sourced and evaluated. “We invalidated them mechanically if they were noisy – the last thing you want is a whirring in the corner of your room. Then we went on to test the read quality of the remaining ones, and their longevity. The best solution we found was from Stream Unlimited, whose mechanism is a bespoke, single-speed, real time CD player. We then went on to modify it, with improved mechanics, disc clamping and vibration isolation; also, as you would expect, serious attention was paid to clocking.” read more…
As far as the recording industry is concerned, Japan is the exception that proves the rule. The world is moving to streaming – not just from CD but now, mostly, from downloads. Yet the land of the rising sun still buys seventy-eight percent of its music on physical formats. That is staggering, and all the more so because the country isn’t some technological backwater, but rather probably the most advanced in the world in terms of its consumer technology uptake.
This is the country where ATM machines have been speaking to you since the nineteen eighties, with cartoons of smartly dressed ladies bowing to you onscreen and thanking you for your custom. In nineties Japan, when Western mobile phone users were still fumbling with buttons and black and white alphanumeric displays, the ‘personal phones’ of that country were as full of features as the smartphones we use today. When the adventurous British motorist was driving around with a large Tomtom satnav device suctioned to his windscreen, Japanese car buyers had the option of standard fit, manufacturer approved integrated navigation systems. In the last decade, everything from Japanese gaming to internet-connected smart homes have shown to be decades ahead. From a fridge to a toilet seat, the Japanese will put a silicon chip in it! read more…
Music is all things to all people. For some, it’s a welcome respite from the cruel world – a way of escaping the stresses and strains of everyday life. For others, it’s a soundtrack to their best times, giving melodic and rhythmic accompaniment to those special moments. Music can be trivial and meaningless, or politicised and uplifting. It can be tenderly romantic or almost violent. It’s an extremely powerful form of communication, and a massive money maker too… Indeed, there has never been a time when music hasn’t been tied to power. Europe’s great classical composers were consummate political operators, winning favour and funding from the monarchies or aristocracies for which they wrote. Warp forward a couple of hundred years and Elvis Presley sent teenage girls wild, to the sound of record store cashier tills ringing. The Beatles and ABBA earned more for the UK and Sweden in the nineteen sixties and seventies respectively than most of their countries’ major corporations. The eighties saw Britain exporting another wave of synthesiser-toting youths around the western world, as record companies swelled their coffers. read more…
Imagine warping back in time thirty years to 1986. Stepping out of your DeLorean, blurry eyed and somewhat slightly dazed, you’re greeted by an audience of eighties music fans desperate to know what the world’s highest selling recording artists are from ‘the new era’. If you replied that AC/DC, Michael Jackson and Pink Floyd were in the top ten, would they believe you?
It’s true though. Joining Taylor Swift, One Direction, Ed Sheeran and Coldplay are some real blasts from the past. It only goes to show that music buying is no longer the province of one generation – it’s now two, or even three. Also, there’s a good deal of crossover going on between the generations. Many of those Floyd album sales will be eighteen year old boys getting up to speed on the wealth of brilliant rock music made by previous generations.
The great thing about streaming of course, is that it’s a huge music library in the sky. Any music-loving kid wanting to hear AC/DC’s Back in Black a generation or so ago, would have to tune into the BBC’s Friday Rock Show, and wait for DJ Tommy Vance to play it. Either that, or wait until Saturday to go to the shops to buy it on vinyl or CD. Now, it’s there at the brush of a touchpad, or a swipe of the screen. The ability to stream almost anything is an intensely liberating thing. read more…
The world would be a different place without the Law of Diminishing Returns. The fact that, for example, a £100,000 luxury car isn’t necessarily twice as fast, smooth or comfortable as a £50,000 one, is an almost universal concept and leads many to conclude that it’s not worth the additional expense. It logically follows then that the pricier the product is, the poorer value for money it offers…
There’s much to confirm this point of view, not least because many manufacturers of luxury goods – be they automobiles, couture, or hi-fi – slavishly follow the formula that their luxury products are little more than the cheaper ones done conspicuously better. Luxury car makers tend not to, for example, radically redesign their suspension systems for their top-of-the-range models, or offer new forms of engines to people able to pay a higher price. There’s relatively little ‘out of the box’ thinking, with many brands instead preferring to adorn staid engineering concepts with extra fripperies in a bid to justify the price.
Many think that this makes good business sense, because most people rely on brand loyalty or what reviewers say to inform their purchasing decisions. But it’s only when you probe beneath the skin of a product that you can really sort the wheat from the chaff. Proper research lets you discern between companies offering conservatively engineered designs in fancy packages, and those that really push the envelope in their respective fields – and truly justify their price tag.
dCS does not – and nor ever could we – start from the former standpoint. There are plenty of products featuring inexpensive off-the-shelf DAC chips which are implemented well and put in exotic cases, and these go on to sell against us in the market. dCS designs however, work the other way round. Our core technology is the Ring DAC – the most technologically advanced way of converting digital audio to analogue sound out there– and it doesn’t come on commercially available silicon from an OEM manufacturer in China. Rather, the Ring DAC is implemented on a large circuit board, running multiple Field Programmable Gate Arrays containing bespoke, dCS-written code. This is firmware-upgradable far into the future, so a dCS digital converter won’t go out of production in a few years, when the chip manufacturer pulls the plug.
This is the most complex and expensive way of producing a DAC, with heavy hardware and software development costs – but is the only way to do the job properly. The dCS product range duly boils down to how exactingly the Ring DAC board is implemented. Vivaldi has no compromise, employing all the know-how that the company has amassed over three decades at the forefront of digital audio. The attention to detail is absolute, the quality control without peer, the consistency over time and over the production run is total. Sonically, it is breathtaking across all formats, giving a vibrancy and life even to standard Compact Disc that betters other top DACs playing hi-res music. Don’t audition it if you don’t want to buy one though, because it will tell you what your current converter is doing wrong in no uncertain terms…
At the other end of our model range is Debussy. Despite being the ‘entry level’ product, like all dCS designs it is fitted with the full Ring DAC board and offers a mouthwatering taste of what is possible. The sound is obviously more powerful and three dimensional than rivals, with unique insight into the music that one simply doesn’t get from lesser machines of plainer origin. It may be ‘dCS-lite’ but is still proudly and defiantly a dCS – Debussy is emphatically not a cheaper design that has been spruced up for high end appeal.
Sitting in-between the two is the brand new Rossini. Effectively a more affordable version of the flagship Vivaldi, it has fewer compromises than Debussy while being priced between the two. It has the general look and functionality of its big brother, and manages to retain its painstaking attention to detail on the audio engineering side. Sonically, it has that bold, exuberant and commanding character of the Vivaldi, while missing very little of the detail and musical insight you get from a 4 box Vivaldi stack. It’s a redoubtable package, and all the more impressive considering it costs less than half of the flagship dCS Vivaldi system.
The new three-strong dCS range gives a graduated approach for prospective purchasers, then. Starting with the best implementation of the superb Ring DAC at the top, it offers the same powerful heart in the less expensive models, with the minimum compromises necessary to achieve the price point. This results in a range that outclasses its commercial rivals, on account of its unique technology – hardware and software – and peerless attention to detail across the board. Contrary to the law of diminishing returns, the improvements are clear to hear as you go up the range, yet each dCS DAC works superbly in its own right.